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During the mid to late s, "the launch of each successive round of technology it's been expected to occupy a headlining position", with the Quake III engine being most widely adopted of their engines.
However id Tech 4 had far fewer licensees than the Unreal Engine from Epic Games , due to the long development time that went into Doom 3 which id Software had to release before licensing out that engine to others.
Despite his enthusiasm for open source code, Carmack revealed in that he had no interest in licensing the technology to the mass market.
Beginning with Wolfenstein 3D, he felt bothered when third-party companies started "pestering" him to licence the id tech engine, adding that he wanted to focus on new technology instead of providing support to existing ones.
He felt very strongly that this was not why he signed up to be a game programmer for; to be "holding the hands" of other game developers.
Carmack commended Epic Games for pursuing the licensing to the market beginning with Unreal Engine 3. Even though the said company has gained more success with its game engine than id Software over the years, Carmack had no regrets by his decision and continued to focus on open source until his departure from the company in In conjunction with his self-professed affinity for sharing source code , John Carmack has open-sourced most of the major id Software engines under the GNU General Public License.
Historically, the source code for each engine has been released once the code base is 5 years old. Consequently, many home grown projects have sprung up porting the code to different platforms, cleaning up the source code, or providing major modifications to the core engine.
Impressive core modifications include DarkPlaces which adds stencil shadow volumes into the original Quake engine along with a more efficient network protocol.
Another such project is ioquake3 , which maintains a goal of cleaning up the source code, adding features and fixing bugs.
The GPL release of the Quake III engine's source code was moved from the end of to August as the engine was still being licensed to commercial customers who would otherwise be concerned over the sudden loss in value of their recent investment.
On August 4, , John Carmack revealed during his QuakeCon keynote that they will be releasing the source code of the Doom 3 engine id Tech 4 during the year.
Since id Software revealed their engine id Tech 5 , they call their engines " id Tech ", followed by a version number. Since id Software and some of its licensees released the source code for some of their previous games, several games which were not ported such as Wolfenstein 3D , Spear of Destiny , Heretic , Hexen , Hexen II , and Strife can run on Linux and other operating systems natively through the use of source ports.
Quake Live also launched with Linux support, although this, alongside OS X support, was later removed when changed to a standalone title.
The tradition of porting to Linux was first started by Dave D. Taylor , with David Kirsch doing some later porting. The majority of all id Tech 4 games, including those made by other developers, have a Linux client available, the only current exceptions being Wolfenstein and Brink.
Similarly, almost all of the games utilizing the Quake II engine have Linux ports, the only exceptions being those created by Ion Storm Daikatana later received a community port.
Despite fears by the Linux gaming community that id Tech 5 would not be ported to that platform,  Timothee Besset in his blog stated "I'll be damned if we don't find the time to get Linux builds done".
However, on January 26, , Besset announced that he had left id. John Carmack has expressed his stance with regard to Linux builds in the past.
Despite no longer releasing native binaries, id has been an early adopter of Stadia , a cloud gaming service powered by Debian Linux servers, and the cross-platform Vulkan API.
Published by Apogee Software, the title and follow-ups brought id Software success as a shareware developer.
It is the series of id Software that designer Tom Hall is most affiliated with. The company's breakout product was released on May 5, Wolfenstein 3D , a first-person shooter FPS with smooth 3D graphics that were unprecedented in computer games, and with violent gameplay that many gamers found engaging.
Each of these first-person shooters featured progressively higher levels of graphical technology. Wolfenstein 3D spawned a prequel and a sequel: the prequel called Spear of Destiny , and the second, Return to Castle Wolfenstein , using the id Tech 3 engine.
A third Wolfenstein sequel, simply titled Wolfenstein , was released by Raven Software , using the id Tech 4 engine. Eighteen months after their release of Wolfenstein 3D , on December 10, , id Software released Doom which would again set new standards for graphic quality and graphic violence in computer gaming.
Doom became a cultural phenomenon and its violent theme would eventually launch a new wave of criticism decrying the dangers of violence in video games.
Doom was ported to numerous platforms, inspired many knock-offs, and was eventually followed by the technically similar Doom II: Hell on Earth.
John Carmack said in an interview at QuakeCon that there would be a Doom 4. It began development on May 7, In June , the sequel to the reboot, Doom Eternal was officially announced at E3 with a teaser trailer, followed by a gameplay reveal at QuakeCon in August On June 22, , the release of Quake marked the third milestone in id Software history.
Quake combined a cutting edge fully 3D engine, the Quake engine , with a distinctive art style to create critically acclaimed graphics for its time.
Audio was not neglected either, having recruited Nine Inch Nails frontman Trent Reznor to facilitate unique sound effects and ambient music for the game.
A small homage was paid to Nine Inch Nails in the form of the band's logo appearing on the ammunition boxes for the nailgun weapon. It also included the work of Michael Abrash.
Furthermore, Quake' s main innovation, the capability to play a deathmatch competitive gameplay between living opponents instead of against computer-controlled characters over the Internet especially through the add-on QuakeWorld , seared the title into the minds of gamers as another smash hit.
The Quake series continued with Quake II in However, the game is not a storyline sequel, and instead focuses on an assault on an alien planet, Stroggos, in retaliation for Strogg attacks on Earth.
Most of the subsequent entries in the Quake franchise follow this storyline. Quake III Arena , the next title in the series, has minimal plot, but centers around the "Arena Eternal", a gladiatorial setting created by an alien race known as the Vadrigar and populated by combatants plucked from various points in time and space.
Todd Hollenshead announced in May that id Software had begun working on an all new series that would be using a new engine. Hollenshead also mentioned that the title would be completely developed in-house, marking the first game since 's Doom 3 to be done so.
On July 14, , id Software announced at the E3 event that they would be publishing Rage through Electronic Arts , and not id's longtime publisher Activision.
During its early days, id Software produced much more varied games; these include the early 3D first-person shooter experiments that led to Wolfenstein 3D and Doom — Hovertank 3D and Catacomb 3D.
In the Haunted Mansion was powered by the same engine as the earlier id Software game Shadow Knights , which was one of the several games written by id Software to fulfill their contractual obligation to produce games for Softdisk , where the id Software founders had been employed.
After a brief hiatus from publishing, id resumed and re-launched the novel series in with Matthew J. A new Doom film, titled Doom: Annihilation , was released in , although id itself stressed its lack of involvement.
Doom was notorious for its high levels of gore  and occultism along with satanic imagery, which generated controversy from a broad range of groups.
Games listed it as one of the top ten most controversial games of all time. The game again sparked controversy throughout a period of school shootings in the United States when it was found that Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold , who committed the Columbine High School massacre in , were avid players of the game.
While planning for the massacre, Harris said that the killing would be "like playing Doom ", and "it'll be like the LA riots , the Oklahoma bombing , World War II , Vietnam , Duke Nukem and Doom all mixed together", and that his shotgun was "straight out of the game".
While Doom and other violent video games have been blamed for nationally covered school shootings, research featured by Greater Good Science Center  shows that the two are not closely related.
Harvard Medical School researchers Cheryl Olson and Lawrence Kutner found that violent video games did not correlate to school shootings.
The United States Secret Service and United States Department of Education analyzed 37 incidents of school violence and sought to develop a profile of school shooters; they discovered that the most common traits among shooters were that they were male and had histories of depression and attempted suicide.
While many of the killers—like the vast majority of young teenage boys—did play video games, this study did not find a relationship between gameplay and school shootings.
In fact, only one-eighth of the shooters showed any special interest in violent video games, far less than the number of shooters who seemed attracted to books and movies with violent content.
As for Wolfenstein 3D , due to its use of Nazi symbols such as the swastika and the anthem of the Nazi Party , Horst-Wessel-Lied , as theme music, the PC version of the game was withdrawn from circulation in Germany in , following a verdict by the Amtsgericht München on January 25, Despite the fact that Nazis are portrayed as the enemy in Wolfenstein , the use of those symbols is a federal offense in Germany unless certain circumstances apply.
Similarly, the Atari Jaguar version was confiscated following a verdict by the Amtsgericht Berlin Tiergarten on December 7, Due to concerns from Nintendo of America, the Super NES version was modified to not include any swastikas or Nazi references; furthermore, blood was replaced with sweat to make the game seem less violent, and the attack dogs in the game were replaced by giant mutant rats.
Employees of id Software are quoted in The Official DOOM Player Guide about the reaction to Wolfenstein , claiming it to be ironic that it was morally acceptable to shoot people and rats, but not dogs.
Two new weapons were added as well. In , the book Masters of Doom chronicled the development of id Software, concentrating on the personalities and interaction of John Carmack and John Romero.
Below are the key people involved with id's success. Carmack's skill at 3D programming is widely recognized in the software industry and from its inception, he was id's lead programmer.
On August 7, , he joined Oculus VR , a company developing virtual reality headsets , and left id Software on November 22, John Romero, who was forced to resign in after the release of Quake , later formed the ill-fated company Ion Storm.
There, he became infamous through the development of Daikatana , which was received negatively from reviewers and gamers alike upon release.
Both Tom Hall and John Romero have reputations as designers and idea men who have helped shape some of the key PC gaming titles of the s.
Tom Hall was forced to resign by id Software during the early days of Doom development, but not before he had some impact; for example, he was responsible for the inclusion of teleporters in the game.
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