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El Salvador. Georgia 1. Georgia 3. The Georgian people in antiquity have been known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Colchians and Iberians. However, western Georgian tribes Colchian tribes established the first Georgian state of Colchis circa BCE before the foundation of the Iberian Kingdom in the east.
According to the renowned scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff , the Moschians also were one of the early proto-Georgian tribes which were integrated into the first early Georgian state of Iberia.
Diauehi in Assyrian sources and Taochi in Greek lived in the northeastern part of Anatolia , a region that was part of Georgia. This ancient tribe is considered by many scholars as ancestors of the Georgians.
Some people there still speak the Georgian language. Colchians in the ancient western Georgian Kingdom of Colchis were another proto-Georgian tribe.
Both Colchians and Iberians played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the modern Georgian nation. According to the scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff :.
Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer, Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian West Georgian kingdom It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the earliest Georgian formation.
A study of human genetics by Battaglia, Fornarino, al-Zahery, et al. Georgian is the primary language for Georgians of all provenance, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages : Svans , Mingrelians and the Laz.
The language known today as Georgian is a traditional language of the eastern part of the country which has spread to most of the present-day Georgia after the post-Christianization centralization in the first millennium CE.
Today, Georgians regardless of their ancestral region use Georgian as their official language. The regional languages Svan and Mingrelian are languages of the west that were traditionally spoken in the pre-Christian Kingdom of Colchis , but later lost importance as the unified Kingdom of Georgia emerged.
Their decline is largely due to the capital of the unified kingdom, Tbilisi , being in the eastern part of the country known as Kingdom of Iberia effectively making the language of the east an official language of the Georgian monarch.
All of these languages comprise the Kartvelian language family along with the related language of the Laz people , which has speakers in both Turkey and Georgia.
According to Orthodox tradition, Christianity was first preached in Georgia by the Apostles Simon and Andrew in the 1st century. It became the state religion of Kartli Iberia in Nino of Cappadocia.
Christianity gradually replaced all the former religions except Zoroastrianism, which become a second established religion in Iberia after the Peace of Acilisene in Georgians remained mostly Christian despite repeated invasions by Muslim powers, and long episodes of foreign domination.
As was true elsewhere, the Christian church in Georgia was crucial to the development of a written language, and most of the earliest written works were religious texts.
Medieval Georgian culture was greatly influenced by Eastern Orthodoxy and the Georgian Orthodox Church , which promoted and often sponsored the creation of many works of religious devotion.
These included churches and monasteries, works of art such as icons , and hagiographies of Georgian saints. Today, This autonomous Republic borders Turkey, and was part of the Ottoman Empire for a longer amount of time than other parts of the country.
Islam has however declined in Adjara during the 20th century, due to Soviet anti-religious policies, cultural integration with the national Orthodox majority, and strong missionary efforts by the Georgian Orthodox Church.
In the early modern period, converted Georgian recruits were often used by the Persian and Ottoman Empires for elite military units such as the Mameluks , Qizilbash , and ghulams.
There is also a small number of Georgian Jews , tracing their ancestors to the Babylonian captivity. In addition to traditional religious confessions, Georgia retains irreligious segments of society , as well as a significant portion of nominally religious individuals who do not actively practice their faith.
The Georgian cuisine is specific to the country, but also contains some influences from other European culinary traditions , as well as those from the surrounding Western Asia.
Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as Megrelian, Kakhetian, and Imeretian cuisines. In addition to various meat dishes, Georgian cuisine also offers a variety of vegetarian meals.
The importance of both food and drink to Georgian culture is best observed during a Caucasian feast, or supra , when a huge assortment of dishes is prepared, always accompanied by large amounts of wine, and dinner can last for hours.
In a Georgian feast, the role of the tamada toastmaster is an important and honoured position. In countries of the former Soviet Union , Georgian food is popular due to the immigration of Georgians to other Soviet republics, in particular Russia.
In Russia all major cities have many Georgian restaurants and Russian restaurants often feature Georgian food items on their menu. The Georgians have historically been classified into various subgroups based on the geographic region which their ancestors traditionally inhabited.
Even if a member of any of these subgroups moves to a different region, they will still be known by the name of their ancestral region.
For example, if a Gurian moves to Tbilisi part of the Kartli region he will not automatically identify himself as Kartlian despite actually living in Kartli.
This may, however, change if substantial amount of time passes. For example, there are some Mingrelians who have lived in the Imereti region for centuries and are now identified as Imeretian or Imeretian-Mingrelians.
Last names from mountainous eastern Georgian provinces such as Kakheti, etc. The Russian census which accounted people by language , had Imeretian, Svan and Mingrelian languages separate from Georgian.
Laz people also may be considered Georgian based on their geographic location and religion. According to the London School of Economics ' anthropologist Mathijs Pelkmans,  Lazs residing in Georgia frequently identify themselves as "first-class Georgians" to show pride, while considering their Muslim counterparts in Turkey as "Turkified Lazs".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Caucasian ethnic group. For the inhabitants of Georgia, see Demographics of Georgia country.